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[72] Louis tried to break up the alliance against him by dealing with individual opponents, but did not achieve his aim until 1696, when the Savoyards agreed to the Treaty of Turin and switched sides. All of Louis' tears and his supplications to his mother did not make her change her mind; the Spanish marriage would be very important both for its role in ending the war between France and Spain, and because many of the claims and objectives of Louis' foreign policy for the next 50 years would be based upon this marriage. [44], France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin, died in 1711. In 1660, Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as one of the provisions of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. [28] The Code Louis played an important part in French legal history as the basis for the Napoleonic code, from which many modern legal codes are, in turn, derived. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre, was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain. The English and Dutch feared that a French or Austrian-born Spanish king would threaten the balance of power and thus preferred the Bavarian Prince Joseph Ferdinand, a grandson of Leopold I through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain (the younger daughter of Philip IV). The Dutch captured Pondichéry in 1693, but a 1697 French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena, Spain, yielded a fortune of 10,000,000 livres. This aristocratic coalition was strong enough to liberate the princes, exile Mazarin, and impose a condition of virtual house arrest on Queen Anne. His first love was Maria Mancini. Add to Wish List. The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th. As it was French custom to imitate the king, Catherine Bellier's sexual favors suddenly became high demand. Warfare defined Louis's foreign policy and his personality shaped his approach. The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.[98]. document.write(year); He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism. From that time until his death, Mazarin was in charge of foreign and financial policy without the daily supervision of Anne, who was no longer regent. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties. More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status. [5] By 1695, France retained much of its dominance, but had lost control of the seas to England and Holland, and most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. By the time her husband died in 1647, she was destitute and was forced to live as a renter in the Hotel de Beauvais.[3]. For example, he patronised the arts, encouraged industry, fostered trade and commerce, and sponsored the founding of an overseas empire. Pondichéry and Acadia were returned to France, and Louis's de facto possession of Saint-Domingue was recognised as lawful. Bekijk onze louis 14 selectie voor de allerbeste unieke of custom handgemaakte items uit onze shops. Louise de Maisonblanche (Louise Marie Antoinette Josèphe Jeanne; Paris, 17 June 1676 – La Queue-les-Yvelines, 12 September 1718), was an illegitimate daughter of Louis XIV of France and Claude de Vin des Œillets, the called Mademoiselle des Œillets, who was the lady-in-waiting to Madame de Montespan, Louis' long term mistress. On 5 April 1693, Louis also founded the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis (French: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis), a military order of chivalry. This captured Franche-Comté and much of the Spanish Netherlands; French expansion in this area was a direct threat to Dutch economic interests. Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Charles de l'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf, Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg, Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, Françoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan, Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Antoine, King of Navarre, Duke of Vendôme, Maria Theresa, Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of France and of Navarre, Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, Colonel General of the Suisses et Grisons, "Modern History Sourcebook: Duc de Saint-Simon: The Court of Louis XIV", "Morganatic and Secret Marriages in the French Royal Family", "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (Königin von Frankreich)", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)", "The Medici Granducal Archive and the Medici Archive Project", "Habsburg, Johanna von Oesterreich (Tochter des Kaisers Ferdinand I. The old military aristocracy (the Noblesse d'épée, or "nobility of the sword") ceased to have a monopoly over senior military positions and rank. These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.[116]. Therefore, in 1700, Louis and William III concluded a fresh partitioning agreement, the Treaty of London. [106] In 1661, Royal of the Academy was founded by Louis to further his ambition. [93] Under the influence of his very religious second wife, he became much stronger in the practice of his Catholic faith. Madame de La Vallière et Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, femme de Louis XIV; avec pièces et documents inédits by Duclos, Henri Louis, b. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy. In their analysis, his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. During the Eighty Years' War with Spain, France supported the Dutch Republic as part of a general policy of opposing Habsburg power. Charlotte Angélique de Prez (Montfort l'Amaury, 11 October 1703 – 1723). At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. Died of a cerebral embolism; married firstly on 3 February 1755 to Marie Jeanne de Malebranche and secondly in 1763 to Claude Marguerite Le Cousturier du Meny. Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterized this second phase of upper-class insurrection. [59], Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. After all, the Edict was the pragmatic concession of his grandfather Henry IV to end the longstanding French Wars of Religion. He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military.[5]. Later, the Battle of Ramillies delivered the Low Countries to the Allies, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied forces. As he didn't want to marry another princes from foreign land, he decided to marry somebody from his court. However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters. [33], Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic, then seize the Spanish Netherlands. Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, the historian Chateaubriand noted: "it is the voice of genius of all kinds which sounds from the tomb of Louis".[25]. Louis Bernard de Prez (Montfort l'Amaury, 17 March 1701). Looking for some great streaming picks? Biography. Louis never loved her, but he was coming to her every night to fulfill his husband's duty. By the winter of 1708–09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. Louis, however, struck more than 300 to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France. With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy. This dowry was nothing compared to the dowries of her other half sisters; the Dowager Princess of Conti (1666–1739) who married Louis Armand de Bourbon in 1680 was given 1 Million Livres as did the Duchess of Bourbon who married in 1685 to Louis de Bourbon. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union. In 1652, Queen Anne worried about her teenaged son being plagued by sexual dysfunction like his father. As Catherine aged, she became overweight, her looks faded, and she fell into debt. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli, two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe. Died of pneumonia. Fouquet was charged with embezzlement. She is portrayed by Valérie Thoumire in the French-produced television series drama Versailles. In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. [37], The French were forced to retreat from the Dutch Republic but these advantages allowed them to hold their ground in Alsace and the Spanish Netherlands, while retaking Franche-Comté. [123] The historian and philosopher Voltaire wrote: "His name can never be pronounced without respect and without summoning the image of an eternally memorable age". By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power. D'Artagnan sings and fronts for slapstick cowardly Ritz brothers posing as musketeers. Further down the French line of succession in 1715 was the House of Conde, followed by the House of Conti (a cadet branch of the House of Conde). He did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success. In 1661, the treasury verged on bankruptcy. Absolute authority: chin up, proud bust and a contemptuous attitude, the Sun King rules. Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers (Chavigny, Bouthilier), and she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs.[11]. He took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal. Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion. [95] Louis established the Paris Foreign Missions Society, but his informal alliance with the Ottoman Empire was criticised for undermining Christendom.[96]. Although eyewitnesses say she strongly resembled to him, the king never acknowledged her as his daughter. Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in 1691 and Namur in 1692., Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Oliver Mallick: « Le principal passage pour aller à la ville de Dom Anna » : Mme de Beauvais et la charge de première femme de chambre de la reine (1646-1666), in: F. L'Hôtel de Beauvais, hrsgg. To the aristocracy, this rebellion represented a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion from vassals to courtiers. "[71], Peace was broached by Sweden in 1690. Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions—customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south. These acts sealed his doom. Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments. Louis was the most powerful man in Europe and every woman was dreaming to be his mistress. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland, Rupert's Land, and Acadia in the Americas to Anne. Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism, which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November 1681. If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's in the 16th century. Bienvenue sur "Les femmes du roi Louis XIV". Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that war was the ideal way to enhance his glory. Held numerous offices, of which: In 1696 she married Bernard de Prez, Baron de La Queue. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI, with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne. [50] Moreover, by entertaining, impressing, and domesticating them with extravagant luxury and other distractions, Louis not only cultivated public opinion of him, he also ensured the aristocracy remained under his scrutiny. Queen Anne had a very close relationship with the Cardinal, and many observers believed that Mazarin became Louis XIV's stepfather by a secret marriage to Queen Anne. In 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette discovered the Mississippi River. Louise remained confined at Mulcent with the Le Signerre sisters till the age of 20 in 1696. [22], During this period, Louis fell in love with Mazarin's niece Marie Mancini, but Anne and Mazarin ended the king's infatuation by sending Mancini away from court to be married in Italy. All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. This FAQ is empty. French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America. [86] Eventually, France recovered its military pride with the decisive victory at Denain in 1712. His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in 1690, Steenkerque in 1692, and Landen in 1693 preserved northern France from invasion.[70]. However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. He had, for example, built an opulent château at Vaux-le-Vicomte where he entertained Louis and his court ostentatiously, as if he were wealthier than the king himself. [4] By his edict, Louis no longer tolerated the existence of Protestant groups, pastors, or churches in France. Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina (O Lord, make haste to help me). His elder son and successor, Joseph I, followed him in 1711. Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg, to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally. This allocated Spain, the Low Countries, and the Spanish colonies to the Archduke. The Cardinal depended totally on Anne's support and had to use all his influence on the Queen to avoid nullifying, but to restrain some of her radical actions. [23], Louis XIV was declared to have reached the age of majority on 7 September 1651. The Fronde years planted in Louis a hatred of Paris and a consequent determination to move out of the ancient capital as soon as possible, never to return.[20]. Check out some of the IMDb editors' favorites movies and shows to round out your Watchlist. Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow. Between 1693 and 1710, over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages. [43] In 1699, Louis once again received a Moroccan ambassador, Abdallah bin Aisha, and in 1715, he received a Persian embassy led by Mohammad Reza Beg. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. Johan de Witt, Dutch Grand Pensionary from 1653 to 1672, viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. Died after falling from a horse; married on 2 November 1745 to Madeleine Marguerite Charlotte Soulaigre des Fossés. } Held the office of. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact. Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance. [50] However, the pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to their rank were only possible by waiting constantly on Louis. [53] The wars were very expensive but defined Louis XIV's foreign policy, and his personality shaped his approach. Moreover, a mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. [citation needed] France retained Île-Saint-Jean and Île Royale, and Louis acquired a few minor European territories, such as the Principality of Orange and the Ubaye Valley, which covered transalpine passes into Italy. As the Thirty Years' War came to an end, a civil war known as the Fronde (after the slings used to smash windows) erupted in France. your own Pins on Pinterest. Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700.[115]. In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg, the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden. Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power. She was officially declared daughter of Philippe de Maisonblanche, old Captain of the Guards, and of Lady Gabrielle de La Tour, his spouse. Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians.

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